Don't have an account? This chapter provides an account of the crosslinguistic variation in the definiteness effects, capturing the following facts: languages differ in terms of how freely they admit post-copular definites in there sentences and whether they treat post-copular definites and indefinites differentially.
Analysing definiteness in terms of specificity, we propose that, in languages which admit pre-verbal focus, post-copular specifics are normally disallowed because they have canonical properties of subjects. In languages that rule out non-contrastive pre-verbal focus, for example the Italo-Romance dialects, specifics occur more freely in post-verbal position.
However, many such languages mark the different degrees of suitability to subjecthood of specific and non-specific noun phrases by the control of finite number agreement on the copula or failure thereof. After providing an empirically rich and theoretically challenging account of copula agreement in there sentences, the chapter discusses semantics—syntax linking in the four types of there sentence introduced in Chapter 2.
This chapter provides an analysis of the definiteness effects, which are traditionally understood as constraints on the licensing of definite existential pivots. An example of a violation of the relevant restrictions in English is given in 1. The definiteness effects have dominated the debate on existential constructions. The existing analyses either rely on constructed English examples e.
Milsark, ZucchiKeenanor focus on elicited or naturally occurring data from individual languages e. While shedding light on the restrictions on the licensing of definite pivots, and the putative exceptions to these restrictions, these analyses fail to explain why, in some languages, definite post-copular noun phrases are more readily available in there sentences than they are in other languages as noted e. Romance p. Example 2 shows that the ungrammatical English sentence in 1 has a grammatical and sensible counterpart in Italian, while examples 3a,b illustrate the differential treatment of the post-copular noun phrase of there sentences in the Logudorese Sardinian dialect of Bonorva.
Observe, in particular, the selection of a different copula in each example and the different patterns of copula agreement. Our starting point is the observation that a typologically adequate account of the definiteness effects ought to capture their crosslinguistic variation. It is on this variation that we focus in this chapter.
In section 4. Italian readily accepts focal definites in post-copular position because it admits post-verbal subjects and requires post-verbal focus in non-contrastive environments. By contrast, English can mark focus by means of the main pitch accent in any position in the clause Laddbut it is less flexible in terms of the position of the subject in syntax.
As a result, this language tends to exhibit in the pre-verbal subject position definite noun phrases that introduce new or focal information. This approach to the issue of the contrast between Italian-type languages and English-type languages does not predict that definites cannot be found in post-copular position in English. To predict when definites occur in post-copular position in languages of the English type, we adopt Beaver et al.
It does not explain, however, the differential treatment of the post-copular noun phrase of there sentences cf. Given that there are genuine existentials with definite pivots, as was argued in section 3. We address this issue in section 4. Three principal patterns arise from this variation. First, there are languages—for example the Salentino dialects of Soleto and Martano see Map 4 —which deny the control of agreement to both definite and indefinite immediately post-copular noun phrases of there sentences.
A second group of dialects, including a number of Sardinian dialects and a great deal of northern Italo-Romance dialects, only treat a subset of post-copular noun phrases as controllers of verb agreement.
Finally, in the dialect of Palmanova spoken in Friulistandard Italian, the Nuorese Sardinian dialect of Fonni, some central Italo-Romance dialects, and the majority of the southern dialects, both definite and indefinite post-copular noun phrases are controllers see Maps 1 and 3. In sections 4. These cannot be properly captured unless reference is made to subject canonicality, and they must be analysed at the discourse—semantics—syntax interface.
Starting from macrorole assignment and the morphosyntactic coding of the arguments, we proceed to the layered structure of there sentences and the linking to the Constituent Projection.Subscribe Now.
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All Rights Reserved. Publications Publications Law. United States Law. Cases Recent Decisions. Recent Decisions. Edward Dickens v. United States May 09, at AM. Thank you for sharing!In English, equatives can be formed with a numeral or measure phrase MP standard e.
John can dive as deep as m ; Rett, John can dive as deep as Sue can in two important ways. Second, MPEs are restricted in their distribution relative to clausal equatives: they are only acceptable when the subject is associated with a range of values or when the value they're associated with is significantly high or both. The main goal of this paper is a unified analysis of the equative morpheme that accounts for these semantic and distributional differences between clausal and MP equatives.
I attribute these differences to the fact that MPEs can trigger two different conversational implicatures: a quantity implicature because they are less informative than MP comparatives ; and a manner implicature, because they are more marked than MP constructions like John can dive m deep. Most users should sign in with their email address.
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The Noun Phrase in Romance and Germanic: Structure, variation, and change
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Definiteness effects and linking
University of California, Los Angeles. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Select Format Select format. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract In English, equatives can be formed with a numeral or measure phrase MP standard e.
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Purchase Subscription prices and ordering Short-term Access To purchase short term access, please sign in to your Oxford Academic account above. This article is also available for rental through DeepDyve. View Metrics. Email alerts Article activity alert. Advance article alerts. New issue alert.The concept of definiteness in Biblical Hebrew is a way of referring to a person s or thing s.Marketing specialists ooh job list canada
Nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and participles can be either definite or indefinite, depending on several factors. In Biblical Hebrew, nouns and pronouns either can be definite on the basis of their own intrinsic nature or can be made definite by some linguistic marking or grammatical construction. Generally speaking, adjectives and participles both active and passive are always intrinsically indefinite, but they can be made definite by an attached definite article or pronominal suffixor by being connected to a definite noun in a construct relationship.
However, these are only general designations and do not represent a comprehesive list. There are three types of terms that are intrinsically definite: proper nounspersonal pronounsand demonstrative pronouns. Biblical Hebrew has three ways to make a term definite: by adding the definite articleby adding a pronominal suffixor by connecting it to a definite term in a construct relationship. Sometimes the definite article can indicate a demonstrative unit of time.
Sometimes a definite adjective can indicate a superlative member of a group. Sometimes a definite term refers to an item that has been mentioned previously in some way, either directly or indirectly. Sometimes a definite term refers to an unidentified item with the assumption that the reader already understands the referent, either from the context of the narrative or from simple knowledge of the world.
Sometimes a definite term refers to a general class or category instead to referring to a specific item. This can be a general category of people, a general class of objects, a generic type of material, etc. Usually the meaning is clear from the context.
Sometimes the definite article is used in this way when a person directly addresses another person. In Biblical Hebrew, when a definite common noun is followed by a definite attributive adjectivean adjectival participleor a noun in apposition, the definite article on both terms shows that they belong together.
In other words, that particular adjective is describing that particular noun. When the definite article is used in front of a verbit refers to the person s doing the action described by the verb and is translated very much like a Particle Relative.
The definite article is used in this way usually with infinitives construct or absolute or participles active or passiveand only rarely with finite verbal forms. The definite article is used very rarely in Hebrew poetry. In poetry, therefore, definite terms and indefinite terms often look exactly alike and must be recognized based on other indicators or discerned simply from the context.
So Joab left and went throughout all Israel. Then he came back to Jerusalem. Today you will be my son-in-law. There remains yet the youngestbut he is tending the sheep.
Yahweh, he is God! I have provided for the temple of my God: gold for the things to be made of gold, silver for the things to be made of silver, bronze for the things to be made of bronze, iron for the things to be made of iron, and wood for the things to be made of wood. And-it-is that I-will-say to-you This he-will-go-with-you he he-will-go with-you.
So now, do not give your daughters to their sons ; do not take their daughters for your sons. These were the events concerning the heavens and the earth, when they were created.
And-he-confused Yahweh [dir.Toggle navigation. Petra SleemanDr. Harry Perridon One of the recurrent questions in historical linguistics is to what extent languages can borrow grammar from other languages. It seems for instance hardly likely that each 'average European' language developed a definite article all by itself, without any influence from neighbouring languages.
It is, on the other hand, by no means clear what exactly was borrowed, since the way in which definiteness is expressed differs greatly among the various Germanic and Romance languages and dialects. One of the main aims of this volume is to shed some light on the question of what is similar and what is different in the structure of the noun phrase of the various Romance and Germanic languages and dialects, and what causes this similarity or difference.
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Robert S. Kaplan and David P. Oxford University Press. Free ebooks since Post a Review You can write a book review and share your experiences.The Driver Score card report helps measure risk and safety scores based on various key indicators such as, speeding, harsh braking, over acceleration, and after-hours vehicle use. With the use of rules, the solution is designed to calculate the number of infractions and display data as shown in the chart below.
This causes many companies to learn the harder way through higher insurance costs, maintenance costs and negative business reputation; proving that nothing has a greater impact on operating expenses than driver performance. The margin of error within driver safety and compliance becomes narrower every year. Any tickets, accidents or claims impacts the entire company and forces harsher penalties, liability, and ultimately higher overall operating costs.
Define penalties around unsafe driving which puts your company at risk. Communicate that unsafe driving will not be tolerated. Develop baseline measurements of driving habits through a driver scorecard. Evaluate current liability and insurance costs. Set goals for improvement based on the measurements and measure against these goals at month intervals.
Implement driver training for high risk drivers. No Ratings Yet.
Definiteness and Referentiality in Turkish Verbal Sentences
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Whether you are running Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, or any other OS, keep it up to date. OS developers are always issuing security patches that fix and plug security leaks. These patches will help to keep your system secure. Similarly, keep your anti-virus software up to date.
Viruses and malware are created all the time. Your scanning software is only as good as its database. It too must be as up to date as possible. Many of our computers connect to our files, printers, or the Internet via a Wi-Fi connection.
Make sure it requires a password to access it and that the password is strong. Never broadcast an open Wi-Fi connection. Use WPA or WPA2 encryption. WEP is no longer strong enough as it can be bypassed in minutes by experts.
You can still access it with your device, you will just have to manually type in the SSID and the password. If you frequently have guests who use your Internet, provide a guest SSID that uses a different password, just in case your friends are evil hackers.
Avoid websites that provide pirated material. Do not open an email attachment from somebody or a company that you do not know.
Do not click on a link in an unsolicited email. Always hover over a link (especially one with a URL shortener) before you click to see where the link is really taking you. If you have to download a file from the Internet, an email, an FTP site, a file-sharing service, etc. A good anti-virus software will do that automatically, but make sure it is being done. This is likely the most difficult thing to do on the Internet. Many hackers will access your files not by brute force, but through social engineering.Compare and contrast puritan life with todays society essay
They will get enough of your information to gain access to your online accounts and will glean more of your personal data. They will continue from account to account until they have enough of your info that they can access your banking data or just steal your identity altogether. Be cautious on message boards and social media.
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